Carcinoid tumors are a slow-growing malignancy that can develop in a variety of locations throughout the body. Carcinoid tumors are a kind of neuroendocrine tumor, which generally start in the digestive system (gut, colon, rectum, appendix, and small intestines ) or the lungs. Neuroendocrine cells help deliver messages throughout the body via hormones and these cells are found in all of the body’s organs. Carcinoid tumors are notorious for their sluggish growth. Carcinoid tumors in children and adolescents are most commonly discovered in the appendix (appendiceal carcinoid tumors) or the lungs (bronchial tumors) and for adults, carcinoid tumors are most commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. This tumor can spread to other regions of the body, which is most prominently seen in adults.
What causes carcinoid tumors
The cause of carcinoid tumors is unknown. In general, cancer arises when a cell’s DNA becomes mutated. The exact DNA mutations that give rise to carcinoid tumors are unknown to doctors. However, they are aware that carcinoid cancers arise from neuroendocrine cells. This mutation causes the cells to grow and divide uncontrollably which results in an accumulation of cells A tumor develops from the accumulated cells and these cancer cells make their way to other regions of the body by invading neighboring healthy tissue.
What are the symptoms of carcinoid cancer?
Carcinoid tumors can cause symptoms in some persons, but not in others. The symptoms of a carcinoid tumor vary depending on where it is located within the body.
Appendicitis symptoms, such as abdominal pain, are common in patients with carcinoid tumors of the appendix. If after the removal of the appendix, the doctor detects a tumor, the person may be diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor later. Symptoms in patients with carcinoid tumors in various sections of the digestive tract include
– Abdominal discomfort
– Vomiting or nausea
Patients with a lung carcinoid tumor may experience symptoms such as:
– Breathing problems
– Pain in the chest
– coughing blood.
Risk factors for carcinoid tumors
Carcinoid tumor cells can emit hormones and other substances, which can lead to a variety of problems, including:
– Carcinoid syndrome: It is a type of cancer. Among other indications and symptoms, carcinoid syndrome produces redness or a sensation of warmth in the neck and face (skin flushing), recurrent diarrhea, and difficulties breathing.
– Carcinoid heart disease: It is a type of cancer that affects the heart. Carcinoid tumors can release hormones that cause the lining, valves, heart chambers, and arteries to thicken giving rise to Leaking heart valves and cardiac failure, and intern necessitating valve replacement surgery. Heart diseases caused by this cancer can usually be controlled effectively using medications.
– Cushing’s syndrome: It is a condition in which the adrenal glands A lung carcinoid tumor which causes cortisol by producing an oversupply of a hormone.
Methods of treatment
Carcinoid tumor’s treatment is determined by the location of the tumor, whether cancer has made its way to other parts of the body, the hormones secreted by the tumor, your overall health, and your personal preferences.
Treatment options for carcinoid tumors may include:
– Surgery: A carcinoid tumor can be surgically removed completely if caught early. When carcinoid tumors are identified in an advanced stage, total removal may be impossible. To assist manage indications and symptoms, surgeons try to surgically remove as much tumor as feasible in some cases.
– Hormonal Imbalance Medicines: Excess hormones can be controlled with medications. Blocking hormones released by the tumor with drugs may lessen the symptoms while also slowing tumor growth.
– Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a treatment that uses powerful medications to eliminate tumor cells. It’s either injected into the veins of arms or swallowed as a pill. Chemotherapy is sometimes used to treat advanced carcinoid tumors that aren’t surgically removed.
– Targeted drug therapy: Targeted drug treatments are designed to target specific abnormalities found in tumor cells. Targeted drug treatments can kill tumor cells by blocking these abnormalities. For advanced carcinoid tumors, targeted medication therapy is frequently paired with chemotherapy.
– Direct radiation to cancer: PRRT (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) is a treatment that combines a medicine that targets cancer cells with a radioactive material that destroys them.